This case study examines the effort by the government of Kenya to increase the ability of the urban poor to access clean water and sanitation facilities. Drawing on the experiences of Zambia and Burkina Faso, Kenya established the Water Services Trust Fund, a pro-poor basket-funding mechanism to support pilot programs using water kiosks, a low-cost technology for providing clean, safe water. Development partners were convinced to shift their investments from large-scale infrastructure projects to the Trust Fund.
This case study examines urban water service delivery reform in Nigeria using qualitative research methods that include a review of relevant project documentation, a literature review on water reform and governance issues in Nigeria, and process tracing (collecting primary source qualitative data through semi-structured interviews). In 2004, the federal government of Nigeria joined with the World Bank to address the institutional weaknesses of urban water utilities under the National Urban Water Sector Reform Project (NUWSRP1).
How did Indonesia provide 25 million rural people with access to improved sanitation in the last decade? Was its paradigm shift—from subsidizing the purchase of latrines to changing people’s behavior—responsible for its success? This case study tracks how the government and development partners introduced community-led total sanitation and developed total sanitation and sanitation marketing.
Devi is a Community Development Specialist in the World Bank’s Jakarta, Indonesia office, working as Country Coordinator for the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). He task leads the Scaling Up Rural Sanitation Hygiene (SURSH) business area, a project that supports the implementation of Community Based Total Sanitation (locally called Sanitatsi Total Berbasis Masyarakat or STBM), a national program for rural sanitation development.