Human Capital

Case study

Reducing the Risk of HIV/AIDS among Female Sex Workers in India

How did the government of India tailor its HIV/AIDS program to the needs of one particularly high-risk group—female sex workers—and effectively deliver services? In two states hard hit by the epidemic, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, the government’s AIDS program included specific targeted interventions: outreach, condom promotion and distribution, clinical services, and community mobilization and social support.

Case study

How to Ensure Quality Health Care and Coverage of Uninsured Populations: Argentina’s Plan Nacer/Programa Sumar

How can a developing country provide free basic health care to poor pregnant mothers and children? How can it expand such a program to provide more comprehensive services to a wider group of beneficiaries? This case study analyzes the “silent revolution” that changed the organizational culture of the health system in Argentina in a way that improved health outcomes, improving the lives of millions of people.

Case study

Addressing Chronic Illness in Low-Income Populations through Innovative Health Service Delivery Practices: The AtlantiCare Special Care Center, 2007–13

The AtlantiCare Special Care Center (the SCC) in Atlantic City, New Jersey, was set up to focus on the needs of a specific set of patients: the sickest 10–20 percent of the patient pool of the health trust of an Atlantic City hospitality workers union, Local 54. These patients suffer from chronic conditions that drastically affect their quality of life and that are extremely expensive to treat. At the same time, ill health and out-of-control health care costs represented a burden on the local economy.

Case study

Mobilizing NGOs through Coordinated Donor and Ministry Support for Basic Health Care Service Delivery in Afghanistan, 2002–14

This case study examines the revival of the health care system in Afghanistan after the fall of the Taliban in 2001. At the start of the period all measures of health status and service delivery were extremely low. The government concluded that contracting out to NGOs was the best means of delivering primary health care services. Carefully chosen staff developed a Basic Package of Health Services that the NGOs contracted to deliver. 

Case study

How to Overcome Communication and Cultural Barriers to Improve Service Provision to Indigenous Populations

How could Mexico implement its flagship conditional cash transfer program—Oportunidades, now Prospera—more effectively to help indigenous populations break the transmission of intergenerational poverty? To better serve indigenous populations, Oportunidades needed to overcome the cultural and communication barriers between the program implementers and its indigenous beneficiaries.

Case study

Community Policing and Youth Violence Prevention Approaches and Implementation in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua

This case study analyzes the implementation of the community policing model in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Violence and street crime committed against and by young people are one of six principal threats to citizen security in Central America. Many factors have made it difficult for Central American governments to control youth violence. Community policing is designed to improve police-community relations by transitioning from repressive policing to a prevention model of policing. 

Case study

How to Support Urban Microentrepreneurs: The Vida Melhor Program

This case study investigates the Vida Melhor (A Better Life) Program that the Bahia state government in Brazil launched in 2011 to promote the social and productive inclusion of disadvantaged (low-income, also called “popular”) entrepreneurs, and highlights how a governmental social policy can interact with and provide services to a highly vulnerable, unorganized sector. 

Case study

The Lagos Eko Secondary Education Sector Project: Tailoring International Best Practices to Improve Educational Outcomes at the State Level

This case study explores how the Eko Project tailored international best practices to leverage impact in Lagos State’s public secondary education system and assesses how the project resolutely responded to the challenges posed by the drop in test scores. Using a qualitative methodology based on semi- structured interviews and focus group discussions, the case study concludes that a proactive approach in a moment of committed political leadership from top to bottom—together with targeted program design, thoughtful adaptation of international experience, and efforts to foster a culture of performance— created the conditions for meaningful and sustainable reform, despite the challenges posed by demographic pressures and funding constraints.

Case study

Tailoring Health Programming to Context Variations: The Three Millennium Development Goal Project in Kayah, Myanmar

This case study explores how the Three Millennium Development Goal (3MDG) project in Kayah State in Myanmar used a six-month inception period to build relationships among partners and to craft a context-tailored approach to meet the basic health needs of Kayah’s most vulnerable populations. This case study describes how the 3MDG project encouraged and supported front-line innovation and adaptive monitoring, as well as how evaluation and learning systems are built into the project’s design to enable effective programs for meaningful and sustainable reform, despite the challenges posed by demographic pressures.

Case study

Leveraging an Informant Network for Rapid Relief Response in Diffa, Niger

This case study explores how the International Rescue Committee (IRC) has responded to humanitarian needs in the Diffa region of southeast Niger since 2013 using three adaptive approaches: a network of informants that feeds into a mechanism for rapid programmatic responses as populations move or as new needs arise, an internal team culture of open communication, and leveraging of information to influence the wider humanitarian community’s response.